In the article “Basketball” we will tell a brief history of the origin of the game, touch a little bit on the rules, talk about the equipment of basketball players.
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History of Basketball
Basketball appeared relatively recently, in the 19th century. It happened, as they say, not out of thin air. A long time ago, the Olmecs (the oldest civilization of America) had a game resembling basketball, and it was called “pok-ta-pok”. Two teams competed by trying to throw a heavy rubber ball into a stone or wooden ring. This is not the only example.
American children had a popular game called “duck on a rock. The player had to hit the top of a larger rock with a small stone. James Naismith often took part in this merry contest. One day during the game in his head he had an idea how to make the game more interesting and better.
Implement the idea he was able to only many years later. As an adult, Naismith, or rather Dr. Naismith, taught anatomy and physical education at an American college. To diversify classes, he decided to invent a new and interesting game for his students. That’s where his old ideas came in handy.
At his direction, two baskets were attached high above the floor at opposite ends of the room. The ball was to be thrown into them. The height at which the baskets were hung was 3 meters and 5 centimeters.
Basketball has come a long way in its 100+ year history. It has become faster, more difficult, and, well, more spectacular. The rules of the game have also changed.
Rules of basketball
The first rules of basketball were published in 1892. It listed Naismith’s famous 13 rules. Many of them are still in effect today, but there are many differences. The game used to consist of two halves of 15 minutes each.
For a successful throw from close range the team is awarded 2 points, and further, about 7 meters, 3 points. In a modern game there are 5 players from each team on the field. There are strict time limits in basketball.
There’s even a special 24-second operator on the bench to make sure the rule is followed. That’s not the only restriction in basketball, there are also 3-second, 5-second and 8-second rules that stipulate different actions by players. You can imagine how difficult it is for the officiating crew to make sure all of these conditions are met, and how difficult it is for the players not to make a mistake.
At first, basketball was played with a soccer ball, and it was not until June 25, 1929 that the first basketball was officially patented. It consisted of 4 pieces sewn together and bore little resemblance to a modern ball. The orange ball we are so used to was not developed until 1950.
By the way, not everyone knows that basketballs are different. They all have the same color and pattern, but the differences lie in size. Men’s teams use big balls, women play with smaller balls, and in mini-basketball matches the smallest balls weighing no more than 0.5 kg. Besides, balls are divided into 2 types: for indoor and universal, which can be played on the street.
Spalding’s Cross Traxxion ball tried to revolutionize modern basketball. In Cross Traxxion there is not a single gram of natural materials, only synthetics. For example, the ball’s chamber is made of butyl and reinforced with the strongest nylon thread of a couple of kilometers. The outer shell (microfiber) is made of two cross-shaped segments, which multiply the strength of the ball and reduce its weight.
The most high-profile scandal in NBA history is associated with this ball, it was not wanted by the prominent athletes of the league. The revolution failed in the blink of an eye, as technology must be augmented by the player and must be introduced gradually.
Another not insignificant element for the game of basketball is the surface on which professional players play. Basketball flooring is very expensive because it is made of Canadian maple. Its cost can reach the cost of a 3-bedroom apartment in Moscow (about $ 200,000).
Also, few people know that the first basketball players did not carry the ball across the floor as they do now. They just threw it to each other while standing in place.
Nowadays it is impossible to imagine basketball without a peculiar way of dribbling the ball. Basketball dribbling is an art form. Masters can dribble the ball so close to the floor that it is almost impossible to intercept.
Dribbling has its own rules about how the ball is dribbled. First of all, it is done with the fingertips, and the fingers themselves should be relaxed and spread out. The dribbler’s hand moves in a semi-circle and the forearm goes up and down.
Dribbling masters constantly make deceptive moves in order to mislead the opponent. The ultimate in dribbling is, of course, the stealthy pass, when a player passes the ball blindly, without looking at who it is addressed to. This is an incredibly difficult pass to anticipate and block. Another type of virtuoso pass is the pass from behind.
Passes can be constantly in motion, jumping, and running. Can you imagine the skill it takes to run a game at that level? That’s why sniper skills and technique are now valued as much as height.
Before Michael Jordan, there was a rule that all NBA league players had to play exclusively in white shoes. In 1984, Michael broke that tradition by purposely wearing red sneakers on the floor. He had to pay a $5,000 fine per game for such audacity. But for his flights in those sneakers from the free throw line, Michael earned the true royal nickname “His Airness”.
So what is hidden in a basketball shoe? The weight of a single shoe in the most advanced models does not exceed 400 grams. The sole is made of high-tech rubber and, in fact, is a multi-layer cake. Some firms stitch an Air cushion into it, while others weld in springy segments of denser rubber. Both reduce stress on the leg joints when landing and, as manufacturers claim, give extra momentum to the jump.
Modern equipment is almost weightless, cools the body heavily and allows sweat to escape without leaving a stain. Surprisingly, but made such “hi-tech” T-shirts and shorts by environmentally friendly technology, from plastic trash. For sewing one set is enough 16 plastic bottles from mineral water.
Speed and agility are important for a basketball player, but they, like marksmanship, come with experience. And where do you get it? In the club, of course.
Basketball is a very popular and therefore widespread game. Basketball sections exist in almost every city, so you just need to decide when to start classes.
Many experts say that the best age to start training is 8-10 years. By the preparatory classes can already begin in grade 1. There are exceptions, if at age 15 you find that you are about to outgrow the most Uncle Stepa, you can come to the section and at this age. The coaches will work with you on a reduced program.
What is basketball?
Basketball is a team sport in which players use their hands to attempt to shoot the ball into an opponent's basket as many times as possible. The team receives 2 points for a short-range shot, 3 points for a long-range shot, and 1 point from the free throw line.
Why did the shield appear in basketball?
For two reasons. The first was the desire to increase the tempo and decrease the time delay in getting the ball back into the game. The first basketball games were played without boards, and the ball had to be constantly caught by the spectators in the stands. The second reason was the ability to hit the basket from the ricochet, for which purpose athletes used a nearby wall during games.
How tall does one need to play basketball?
As a teenager (15-17 years old), 175 cm is enough to qualify for a spot on the national team. For professional players this figure is 195 cm. If you have phenomenal dexterity and flexibility, a point guard position will also require you to be 180 cm tall.