Rules of chess: how the pieces move, principles of the game and peculiarities

Rules of chess

In the article “Rules of chess” you will learn the basic rules of the intellectual game, for which there are no age limits. We will talk about the principles and peculiarities of the game.


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Chess is a unique and exciting game that is suitable for people of all ages. The game of chess develops many useful qualities including concentration, analytical thinking and sound decision making, and the rules described below will help you become a more confident and skilled player.

Chess was invented to simulate warfare on the board, and in this game you will be in charge of one of the armies: either the white army or the black army. As in any war, each army has its own general and leader. In chess it is called “King” and just the goal and task of the whole game is to take the enemy King into captivity.

Chess board
Chess board

The chess board consists of white and black squares. At the bottom of the board there are English letters that represent verticals. On the side of the board there are numbers that represent the horizontals. White and black pieces always take turns, and you can move only one piece per move.

The board is positioned correctly if there is a white board in the corner on the right hand. For the one who plays with white pieces this square is called h1, and for black pieces it is called a8.

Each side has 16 pieces, these are 8 pawns, which stand in a row and cover the other pieces and the King. There are 2 Rooks, which always stand in the corner of the board. Next to them are two Knights, followed by two Elephants. One each of the Queen and the King, they are located on the central verticals.

Placement of pieces on the board
Placement of pieces on the board

There is one simple rule that will help you to place the Queen and the King on the board correctly: the Queen likes his color. I.e. black Queen stands on a black square, and white Queen on a white square, and the King is always placed next to them.

Your task is to checkmate the opponent’s King, i.e. to make the King under attack and unable to avoid it. There are only six types of pieces in the game, and each of them moves according to certain rules. They have only one thing in common – to take someone else’s piece, you have to stand on the same square with it. Let’s take a closer look at them.

Pawn (“Soldier”, “Infantryman”) goes strictly one square ahead, but in its first move, each pawn has the right to move two squares. And to take the opponent’s piece, the pawn moves diagonally.

How a pawn walks and hits
How a pawn walks and hits

Pawn is a unique piece, because the conditional value of a pawn is equal to one, but reaching the edge of the board, a pawn can become a Rook, a Knight, a Bishop and even a Queen, and an extra Queen on the board will almost always bring you victory.

Interesting fact: “It’s incredible, but you can checkmate your opponent in just two moves. The fastest checkmate in classical chess is called “Stupid Checkmate” and it can be placed by the Queen on the unprotected diagonal h4-e1 or h5-e8″

The pawn has one more special move, which is called “En passent“. This is a situation in which the opponent went his pawn immediately two moves forward, but through the beaten field of your pawn.

En passent
En passent

At the capture on the passage pawn traditionally moves askew, taking the jumped pawn. In the capture on the passage participate only pawns, take a piece in the game in this way can not. It is impossible to take a piece on the passage after 1 move, i.e. you can use this right only immediately after the opponent’s move.

The most unusual piece in chess is the Knight (don’t call it Horse!). The Knight always moves with the Russian letter “Г” or the Latin letter “L” and can jump over other pieces. In this case, if the Knight moves from the white field, he always gets on the black field, and vice versa. Conditional value of the Knight is equal to three pawns.

How the Knight walks
How the Knight walks

Bishop (“Officer”) is a long-range piece, because he moves any number of squares, but strictly diagonally. Note that one Bishop moves only on white squares and the other only on black squares, but together they represent a very formidable force. The conditional value of the Bishop is equal to three pawns.

How the Bishop walks
How the Bishop walks

Rook (“Tura”, “Tower”) is a long-range piece. Rook also goes to any number of squares, but already on verticals and horizontals, ie only in a straight line, but in any direction. The Rook is valued at 5 pawns, more expensive than the Bishop and Knight and all this because the Rook has a strong attacking potential. The Rook loves freedom and space – remember this when you play.

How the Rook walks
How the Rook walks

The strongest piece is the Queen. It combines the capabilities and Rook and Bishop, that is, goes both vertically and horizontally, and diagonally to any number of squares, which is why the value of the Queen is equal to 9 pawns. With the help of the Queen is the easiest way to checkmate the King.

How the Queen walks
How the Queen walks

King (“General”) is the most important piece in chess. The King must be defended with all his strength, so he is usually in a safe shelter of his pieces, so as not to get checkmate early. The King moves in any direction for one square, including diagonally, and the opponent’s King cannot be on an adjacent square.

How the King walks
How the King walks

The King hits in the same way as he moves, but there is one rule: you cannot cut down the king, because according to the rules of chess, the position in which the piece attacked the King is called a check. The side to which the shah is declared is obliged to save its King. The King himself cannot go under the check, and if the King cannot escape, then this means checkmate, i.e. the King was captured.

To keep the King safe in the game a special move has been invented to significantly change his position. Castling is a special move in which the King moves two squares to the right or left, and then the rook stands next to him on the other side. There are two types of castling: Short (on the right side) and Long (on the left side).

Castling
Castling

It is important to remember that only two pieces participate in castling: the King and the Rook, and only if they have not made any moves yet and there are no other pieces between them on the board. Castling is not possible if the King is under check or will pass through a beaten field as a result of castling.

If you checkmate the enemy King, you win. You can also win if your opponent has surrendered. Another outcome in a game besides victory and defeat can be a draw. It is obtained if one player offers to end the game in a draw and the other player agrees, but the player who was offered a draw can refuse and continue fighting.

Sometimes there are situations when a player cannot make a move without breaking the rules of chess, and the King is not under attack (check). In this case Pat is declared, and according to modern interpretation it means a draw.

Interesting fact: “The movie “Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone” used the original image of the oldest chess pieces in the world. They were found by peasant M. Macleod in 1831 on the Isle of Lewis in Northern Scotland. The chess was made of walrus tusk and whale tooth”

During the game, players must observe etiquette and remember the basic rule of chess: “touched, move”. A move is considered completed when a player’s hand has released a piece. First you must think about the move, then make a decision and only then make a move!

To learn how to play chess and in most cases to win you need three main things:

  1. Practice playing chess as often as possible;
  2. Learn the tricks and subtleties of the art of chess;
  3. Develop and improve your combinational vision.

We hope that our article “Rules of chess” has helped you understand the basics of the game, and your journey into the world of chess will be fulfilling and exciting. Chess is not only a game, but also an art where strategy and logic interact in clever combinations. Good luck to you in your chess duels!

Brief rules of chess

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